External hemorrhoids/piles can get irritated and clot under the skin, causing a hard painful lump. This is called a thrombosed, or clotted, hemorrhoid.
A number of surgical techniques may be used if conservative management and simple procedures fail. All surgical treatments are associated with some degree of complications including bleeding, infection, anal strictures and urinary retention, due to the close proximity of the rectum to the nerves that supply the bladder. There may also be a small risk of fecal incontinence, particularly of liquid, with rates reported between 0% and 28%.Mucosal ectropion is another condition which may occur after hemorrhoidectomy (often together with anal stenosis).This is where the anal mucosa becomes everted from the anus, similar to a very mild form of rectal prolapse.